S.J.A. Turney's Books & More

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Ladies of Magna Carta

with 4 comments

Today, I have something of a treat for you. The lovely, knowledgeable and entertaining Sharon Bennett Connolly has just released a new book covering the impressive women with an involvement in the great Magna Carta. You might know that I’m a devotee of Sharon’s work, having read and reviewed her two previous books, and this one holds up her excellent standard. Quite simply I’ve not come across anyone more knowledgeable on the subject of the women of Medieval Britain than her. I’ll review the book at the end here, but first, as part of her Blog Tour, Sharon has kindly penned an article on the book, so feast your historical hunger on this:

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Thank you so much to Simon for inviting me to his blog to talk about Ladies of Magna Carta: Women of Influence in Thirteenth Century England.

Family Ties

When writing Ladies of Magna Carta, I was struck time and again by how closely the nobility of England was related, through blood and marriage. Each of the women I wrote of had at least one familial connection to someone else in the book; some had a number of links to several families. It is a tangled and complicated web, but I will try and give you a brief overview here.

My favourite medieval woman is Nicholaa de la Haye, castellan of Lincoln Castle; she successfully defended the castle through 3 sieges, the last 2 when she was a widow in her 60s. Nicholaa was related to King John’s half-brother, William  Longespée, Earl of Salisbury, through her son, Richard, whose daughter Idonea was married at a young age to William, Longespée’s son by his wife, Ela of Salisbury. It was as a result of this connection that William (I) Longespée claimed Lincoln Castle and the shrievalty of Lincolnshire following the Second Battle of Lincoln in May 1217. Longespée claimed they were his by right of his daughter-in-law; Idonea’s father, Richard, had died sometime in the previous 12 months, leaving Idonea as his sole heir. Despite Nicholaa’s stalwart defence of Lincoln Castle during a 10-week siege, Longespée was granted the castle and position of sheriff just 4 days after the battle. Nicholaa’s refusal to accept this saw her presenting herself to the royal court and requesting she be reinstated. A compromise was reached whereby Longespée remained as sheriff of Lincolnshire, but Nicholaa was reinstated as castellan of Lincoln Castle, her home since childhood.

Ela of Salisbury provided at least 2 further familial connections among my Ladies of Magna Carta. Through her grandfather, Patrick of Salisbury, Ela was a cousin of William Marshal and his five daughters. Marshal was the son of Patrick of Salisbury’s sister, Sybilla. Patrick himself had married, as his second wife, Ela de Talvas, who was the widow of William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Warenne and Surrey. From her first marriage, Ela de Talvas was the mother of the heiress, Isabel de Warenne, Countess of Surrey in her own right and wife to, first, William of Blois, youngest son of King Stephen and secondly, Hamelin Plantagenet, illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II. Isabel de Warenne, therefore, was aunt to Ela of Salisbury, Richard the Lionheart and King John.

Isabel de Warenne’s own aunt, Ada de Warenne, was married to the son and heir of King David I of Scotland, Henry, Earl of Huntingdon. Ada was the mother of 2 Scottish kings, Malcom IV the Maiden and William I the Lion. She was, therefore, the grandmother of the Scottish princesses, Margaret and Isabella, the only two women, other than the queen, who can be clearly identified in a clause of Magna Carta. Margaret and Isabella had been handed over to King John as hostages following the 1209 Treaty of Norham, agreed between their father, William the Lion, and King John. John was supposed to find suitable husbands for the teenage girls; it had been implied that they would be married to John’s sons, Henry and Richard, but no marriages had ever materialised. Clause 59 of Magna Carta stipulated that John would find spouses for the princesses or send them home.

The two girls were eventually wed to English noblemen, though not until the 1220s. In 1221 Margaret married Hubert de Burgh, Henry III’s Justiciar and widower of another of my Ladies of Magna Carta, Isabella of Gloucester, who also had the dubious honour of having been the first wife of King John. Princess Isabella was married, in 1225, to Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, who was 14 years her junior. The marriage was not a happy one. A third Scottish princess, Marjorie, who was several years younger than her 2 sisters and not part of the conditions of the Treaty of Norham, also married into the English nobility. She became the wife of Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke, 3rd son of the great William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke and regent for Henry III.

Roger Bigod was the son of Hugh Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, and Matilda Marshal, eldest daughter of William Marshal. Marshal was the man who had led the army that relieved Nicholaa de la Haye and the siege of Lincoln Castle in May 1220. Matilda married as her second husband William de Warenne, fifth Earl of Warenne and Surrey and only son of Isabel and Hamelin, mentioned earlier. Matilda’s sister, Isabel, was married to Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester; he was the nephew of the same Isabella of Gloucester who had been wife to King John, Geoffrey de Mandeville and Hubert de Burgh. Isabel Marshal then married, as her second husband, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, brother of Henry III and youngest son of King John. Another sister, Eva, married William (V) de Braose, grandson of William (IV) de Braose and Matilda, the poor woman who was imprisoned by King John and starved to death, alongside her eldest son, in his dungeons in 1210. It was Eva’s husband who was hanged by Llywelyn, Prince of Gwynedd, after he was found in Llywelyn’s bedroom with Llywelyn’s wife, Joan, Lady of Wales and illegitimate daughter of King John.

Which brings us neatly to the royal family. John’s eldest legitimate daughter, also named Joan, was betrothed as a child to Hugh X de Lusignan, Count of La Marche. The marriage never materialised, however, as Joan’s mother, Isabelle d’Angoulême, decided to marry Count Hugh in her daughter’s stead, causing a rather juicy scandal in the process! Joan was not without a suitor for long and within a year of her mother’s marriage she was married to Alexander II, King of Scots and brother of those same Scottish princesses who were included in Magna Carta’s clause 59. Of Joan’s sisters, Isabella was married to Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleanor, only a baby at the time of her father’s death, was married to William (II) Marshal, eldest son and heir of the great William Marshal, at the age of 9. Eleanor was a widow before her 16th birthday, dramatically taking a vow of perpetual chastity in front of the Archbishop of Canterbury shortly after her husband’s death.

As her second husband, Eleanor married Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, despite that pesky vow of chastity, which was to prove costly to Simon when he had to travel to Rome to seek a papal dispensation to have it annulled. Simon de Montfort was to continue the fight for reform that had been enshrined in Magna Carta, but would meet his end at the Battle of Evesham in 1265. Simon and Eleanor’s daughter, also named Eleanor, would marry Llywelyn, Prince of Wales, grandson of Llywelyn, Prince of Gwynedd. Eleanor died in childbirth in June 1282, while Llywelyn was defeated and killed by Edward I’s forces in December, the same year. Their only daughter, Gwenllian, was placed in a convent in Lincolnshire before she was 18 months old and would never leave it, dying there in 1337. Another perpetual royal prisoner was Gwenllian’s distant cousin, Eleanor of Brittany, a granddaughter of Henry II, niece of King John and first cousin of Henry III. Her royal blood meant that she would never be afforded the protection enshrined in clause 39 of Magna Carta and inspired by the gruesome death of Matilda de Braose, that:

“No man shall be taken, imprisoned, outlawed, banished or in any way destroyed, nor will we proceed against or prosecute him, except by the lawful judgement of his peers or by the law of the land.”

There are many more familial links between the Ladies of Magna Carta. I could go on…

But I’m guessing that your heads are spinning and this is more than enough … for now.

 

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All that remains is for me to give you my impressions of the book and thereby perhaps encourage you to pick up a copy. ‘Ladies’ is an all-encompassing work. In order to fully explain how each of her chosen characters fits into the tale, we are first treated to a concise history of King John and his immediate family, from his early days until after his death, explaining how Magna Carta came about and in some ways how the important families fit into its history. This alone made the book a worthwhile read for me. I’ve read much about Richard I, with only peripheral reading on John, who is often villainised in a very Richard III way, but this was quite eye-opening. It is a very balanced account of the man, cutting through much of the folklore.

From there we move into an examination, chapter by chapter, of certain women who were either instrumental in the creation of Magna Carta and its specific wording, mentioned in the charter itself, or whose own life contains critical moments that were driven by the charter. As usual with Sharon’s work, it becomes clear that the women of Medieval Europe were in no way as uniformly meek, passive and downtrodden as general culture would have us believe. Indeed, there are some characters in here that deserve a movie of their own, defending castles and threatening kings.

Just two examples of such powerful women include Matilda de Braose and, if I may quote the book: “one legend arose of Matilda building the castle of Hay in one night, single handed, carrying the stones in her skirts.’ Similarly impressive is Nicholaa de la Haye, who defended Lincoln castle and held positions one would presume to be solely the mark of men. I found at least three characters I would love to write fiction works about within these pages. Oh, and the book also taught me about Anchorites, which was a fascinating sideline for me.

In short, this book is another fascinating and eye-opening work and anyone with an interest in the subjects of Medieval Women, British History, or the legends of King John and the Magna Carta should be rushing out to get their copy.

And while Sharon gets back to work on her next opus, here are the links to check out her work and buy the book:

Blog: https://historytheinterestingbits.com/

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Thehistorybits/

Twitter: @Thehistorybits

Pen & Sword Books: https://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/Ladies-of-Magna-Carta-Hardback/p/17766

Amazon: mybook.to/LadiesofMagnaCarta

Written by SJAT

July 8, 2020 at 7:57 am

Posted in Non Fiction

Tagged with , , ,

4 Responses

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  1. Reblogged this on History… the interesting bits! and commented:
    Today on the Ladies of Magna Carta Blog Tour I stop by author SJA Turney to talk about the Family Ties that link so many of the women of the Magna Carta story.

    Like

  2. […] will be making 2 stops on 8th July, visiting Simon Turney’s S.J.A. Turney’s Books and More, with an article on the many Family Ties of the women of the Magna Carta a story, plus Simon has […]

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  3. A mind spinning review of this Medieval web right there! I hope very much as enthusiasts of Magna Carta and it’s world that professional historians and writers take the time some day to understand article 50 of the original Magna Carta and motivation of its authors to focus so forcefully on my family; family De Athe.
    There was a very, very great deal of ‘good for britain’ in their conduct, Gerard, Engelard and co.

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    Mike

    July 8, 2020 at 11:39 am

  4. […] S.J.A. Turney’s Books & More – Book Review […]

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